Happiness, according to psychologist James R. Averill, a Eudaemonist, is a means-to-an-end, contrary to what his predecessor Aristotle thought. After taking into account both survey reports and behavioral observations, he devised a table of happiness (see below). It is a 2×2 table, one axis being “Activation,” the other “Objectivity.” The four types of happiness he identified were joy, equanimity, eudaemonia, and contentment. He narrowed it down to the objective standard of high immersion known as “eudaemonia,” a term for overall well-being that finds its roots in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle wrote that eudaemonia was achieved through activity, as when we are so engaged in doing something, we forget we are doing it, and lose a sense of time—time flies when you’re having fun. As such, happiness for Aristotle is not a typical emotion in that it occurs for periods of time. You cannot always be in a state of eudaemonia. Rather, it can be actively pursued when you immerse yourself in meaningful work. To be happy is not to be happy about or for anything because it is essentially an object-less emotion, a pure feeling. Eudaemonia is distinguished from equanimity by the fact that the latter is the absence of conflict, the former the resolution thereof. Equanimity has been valued by philosophers as a state of total inner peace; on the other hand, eudaemonia is the result of achieving a goal, which necessarily entails conflict, viz. desire vs. intention. When you are confident in your abilities and set realistic goals, when you are able to complete their goals, having overcome conflict, you can achieve happiness. Too many short-term goals means not experiencing enough of what life has to offer, while too many long-term goals means not being accomplished or confident in yourself. The measure of happiness, then, is relative, not absolute, and differs from person to person. What remains absolute, however, is that this sense of achievement can be had privately, by yourself, and publicly, when it is done for your community, family, or close friends. Inherent to eudaemonia, Averill asserts, is purpose: Behind happiness is direction, intention, and devotion. This led him to claim that “Pleasure without purpose is no prescription for happiness,” meaning you should not resort to hedonism to be happy, but must seek pleasure in meaningful actives into which you can immerse yourself.
Averill’s Table of Happiness:
For further reading: Handbook of Emotions 2nd ed. by Michael Lewis (2000)